An update on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Natalie Schellack Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
  • Gustav Schellack
  • Richard Omoding Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
Keywords: chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, emphysema, LABA, SABA, SAMA, LAMA, methylxanthines

Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is a chronic condition which affects the respiratory system and worsens over time. Cigarette smoking and advancing age are the two major risks associated with this disease. It is concerning that the global incidence of this chronic illness is on the rise. Current projections indicate that it will become the third leading cause of death by the year 2020. Inflammatory changes underlie the pathophysiology of COPD. Irreversible damage and progressive narrowing of the air passages follow. COPD is characterised by the progressive loss of lung function. In addition, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease released the latest update on its global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD in 2015. This article provides an overview of the causative risk factors, underlying disease process, pathophysiological changes, and the classification and management of COPD, including the latest perspectives on this highly prevalent condition.

Author Biographies

Natalie Schellack, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Sciences Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
Richard Omoding, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Sciences Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
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Reviews