Mycoses and anti-fungals – an update

  • Natalie Schellack Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
  • Jade Du Toit Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
  • Tumelo Mokoena Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
  • Elmien Bronkhorst Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
Keywords: invasive fungal diseases, superficial fungal diseases, fungal skin infections

Abstract

Fungi normally originate from the environment that surrounds us, and appear to be harmless until inhaled or ingestion of spores occur. For many years fungal infections were thought of as superficial diseases or infections such as athlete’s foot, or vulvovaginal candidiasis. Subsequently, when invasive fungal infections were first encountered, amphotericin B was the only treatment for systemic mycoses. However, with the advances in medical technology such as bone marrow transplants, cytotoxic chemotherapy, indwelling catheters as well as with the increased use of broad spectrum antimicrobials in antimicrobial resistance, there has been a marked increase of fungal infections worldwide.

Populations at risk of acquiring fungal infections are those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, patients receiving immunosuppressant therapy, neonates and those of advanced age.

The management of superficial fungal infections is mainly topical, with agents including terbinafine, miconazole and ketoconazole. Oral treatment includes griseofulvin and fluconazole.

Historically the management of invasive fungal infections involved the use of amphotericin B, however newer agents include the azoles and the echinocandins. This paper provides a general overview of the management of fungus infections.

Author Biographies

Natalie Schellack, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

BCur, BPharm, PhD (Pharmacy), Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

Jade Du Toit, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

Tumelo Mokoena, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

Elmien Bronkhorst, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

Published
2020-02-28
Section
Reviews